By Robert Gilmore
Alice is set to go into a complete new Wonderland. It's Quantumland--a form of highbrow leisure park, smaller than an atom, the place every one appeal demonstrates a unique element of quantum thought. There she'll meet an Emperor who thinks his new outfits into life, dance with the 3 Quark Brothers on the Particle MASSquerade, shuttle again in time (running into herself), and adventure every kind of quantum results. Readers will find out about the Uncertainty precept, wave services, the Pauli precept, and different elusive options.
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Additional info for Alice in Quantumland: An Allegory of Quantum Physics
Independent of this, however, eq. (46) provides us with a precise value of the gluon thermalization time in the high-temperature, classical limit, defined as the characteristic entropy growth time near equilibrium: T. 85/lT. 4 fm/ c, as shown in Figure 17. This value is comfortably short on the time-scale of relativistic heavy ion collisions, where the high-density phase is predicted to last for several fm/c. 32 Inverse KS entropy for SU(3) '" 0 3 I- 1000 200 Figure 17. Thermalization time of gluonic matter close to thermal equilibrium, as obtained from the Lyapunov exponent of thermal SU(3) lattice gauge theory68.
The best published results, by the Columbia group34, for a 163 x 4 lattice indicate a surprisingly strong dependence of the phase diagram on the magnitude of the strange quark mass. For the physical mass ms ~ 150 MeV there seems to be no discontinuity, but only a rapid change in the energy density over a small temperature range (about 10 MeV). However, it is probably premature to consider this as the final word. Intermezzo: Astrophysical Implications We will return to the results of lattice gauge theory in a moment, but let us pause briefly to study some astrophysical implications of a hadron-quark-gluon phase transition.
Of 7r7r, I< I<, or N N correlations 104 , which yield information on the reaction geometry. By studying the two-particle correlation function in different directions of phase space, it is possible to obtain measurements of the transverse and longitudinal size, of the lifetime, and of flow patterns of the hadronic fireball at the moment where it breaks up into separate hadrons. The transverse sizes found in heavy ion collisions 105 , as well as in N - N collisions at high multiplicitylOo are larger than the radius of the incident particle, clearly exposing the fact that produced hadrons rescatter before they are finally emitted.
Alice in Quantumland: An Allegory of Quantum Physics by Robert Gilmore