By Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash
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Extra info for Advanced Education Psychology
Can Machines Teach a Child to Think? Skinner emphasizes that thinking or originality is not absence of lawfulness and it should never be considered a spontaneous process. He points out that as long as thinking is identified with spontaneity or lawlessness it is a hopeless task to attempt systematically to influence a child's thinking in any way. Thinking, like the rest of the behaviour of an organism, is a lawful process. Thus, verbal behaviour, in terms of which human thinking eventually must be defined, should be treated in its own right as a substantial goal of education.
When properly and carefully used, a series of very slight reinforcements may be tremendously effective in controlling behaviour. 92 In addition to automatic reinforcement arising from manipulation of the environment, some other reinforcers are available and often used. A child behaves in a certain way and the behaviour is reinforced by its immediate consequences. Reinforcement may follow from a child's excelling others. However, when he is competitively "rewarded," the reinforcement of this child is, of necessity, aversive—"punishing"—to others.
Many differentiation reinforcements may be supplied automatically by mechanical exigencies of the environment of an organism. To throw a ball skilfully, a person must release it at the proper moment; instances in which release comes before or after the proper moment are not reinforced. However, in more complex skill learning, reinforcement must be supplied by a teacher. In this process, reinforcement which develops skill must be immediate. " Through the procedure of operant conditioning, within which differentiation of response is reinforced, a hungry pigeon well adapted to the experimental situation and the food tray usually can be brought to respond by pecking a specific spot in two or three minutes.
Advanced Education Psychology by Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash