By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold
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Extra resources for A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint.
This is so that at high operating speeds the increased lag allows as much pressure energy as possible to be generated in the cylinder by the incoming air and fuel charge, prior to its further compression by the rising piston. There is also an increase in the value of valve overlap for the high performance engine. This means that at TDC both inlet and exhaust valves will be open together for a longer period of time giving a better breathing of the engine at these higher engine speeds (Fig. 15). In the two-stroke petrol engine port timing is the equivalent to valve timing.
As the gases rapidly expand the piston is forced down the cylinder on the power stroke. The speed of the flame front must not exceed the speed of the power stoke. 18 shows the combustion process occurring in a wedge-shaped combustion chamber of a petrol engine. 12 Combustion in a diesel engine Combustion in a petrol engine originates (begins) at the spark plug and then progresses across the combustion chamber in a controlled manner. In the case of the diesel engine, combustion of the fuel is initiated (started) by the heat of the air in the Engines and lubrication 27 B A C E D Cam angle Engine speed ECM (computer) Throttle Fig.
However, easier starting, no starting aids, high thermal efficiency and fairly constant torque output are the main advantages. Also, because of the low surface area/volume ratio giving low heat losses, a characteristic of the system is a considerable saving in fuel giving good fuel consumption results. A disadvantage is a reduction in volumetric efficiency, due to the necessity of giving the incoming air the swirling movement as it passes into the cylinder. This effect can be largely overcome by the use of the ‘indirect injection’ system.
A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold